Australian Government, 2012‑13 Budget
Budget

3. Global Programs

In addition to bilateral aid and cross regional programs, Australia contributes to a number of global initiatives that support poverty reduction efforts around the world.

AusAID's global program comprises around 27 per cent of the aid program and includes assistance to a range of multilateral and non-government partners. The AusAID global program supports the operational activities of international humanitarian organisations, international development banks, United Nations and Commonwealth organisations, specialised international partnerships, and partnerships with Australian non‑government organisations (NGOs). See further detail in Box 1 below.

Australia provides support to multilateral organisations and NGOs because it:

  • enables Australia to contribute to development efforts on a broader scale and in countries where establishing a bilateral aid program would be less effective;
  • increases our influence within multilateral organisations, to improve their performance and focus on issues of interest to Australia;
  • reduces fragmentation by reducing the number of individual activities within the Australian aid program and helping to consolidate international efforts; and
  • enables more Australian NGOs to undertake development work.

Box 1: Major Multilateral and Non-Government Partners

  • Multilateral Humanitarian Organisations: includes the International Committee of the Red Cross, World Food Programme, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
  • International Development Banks: includes the concessional lending arm of the multilateral development banks, the key partners being the World Bank and Asian Development Bank.
  • UN and Commonwealth Organisations: includes the UN Development Programme, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Population Fund, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, UN Women and the World Health Organization. Also includes core funding to Commonwealth development organisations.
  • Specialised International Partnerships: includes partnerships with health, education and environment organisations such as the GAVI Alliance, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program, and the Global Partnership for Education.
  • Multilateral Climate Change and Environment Partnerships: includes the International Climate Change Initiative, and the Global Environment Facility.
  • Australian NGOs and Community Programs: includes funding through the AusAID-NGO Cooperation Program, volunteer and community programs, and Australian Development Research Awards.
  • Global Partnerships funded by Other Government Departments: includes core contributions by Australian government agencies to international organisations, including by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade to the United Nations agencies, the Department of Employment, Education and Workplace Relations to the International Labour Organization, Department of Health and Ageing to the World Health Organization, and Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. See Section 5 for more information.

Table 6 shows actual expenditure on AusAID global programs in 2010‑11, estimated outcomes for 2011‑12 and anticipated expenditure in 2012‑13.

In An Effective Aid Program for Australia: Making a real difference — Delivering real results, the Government also committed to link the performance and relevance of multilateral organisations to Australia through the introduction of a rating system. This has been determined through the Australian Multilateral Assessment, which was publicly released in March 2012 and can be found on the AusAID website at www.ausaid.gov.au (see Box 2, Section 3.1).

3.1. Multilateral Engagement

Overview

Multilateral organisations are large and growing partners for the Australian aid program and add value to the aid program by:

  • producing data, policy and analytical work that helps to inform the work of Australia and other bilateral donors;
  • helping to coordinate development efforts at a country level and on major international policy issues;
  • mobilising experience and expertise from around the world;
  • delivering programs on a scale beyond the capacity of Australia and other bilateral donors; and
  • operating in countries where Australia does not have a significant presence or in sectors where bilateral assistance is not possible.

Australia engages with multilateral organisations at both policy and program levels.

At a policy level, Australia is an active member of the governing bodies of major multilateral organisations and holds regular high level consultations with senior management. Australia's influence is growing commensurately with increases in funding levels. Australia is using this growing influence to push multilateral organisations to increase their effectiveness, improve their monitoring and reporting of results and increase their attention to value for money.

At a program level, multilateral organisations are important delivery partners. Through core funding (funding not tied to a specific purpose), Australia supports multilateral organisations to implement programs that deliver development benefits around the globe. Through non-core funding (funding tied to a specific purpose), multilateral organisations deliver programs in countries or in sectors beyond what is possible through bilateral activities.

There are many examples of how our partnerships with multilateral organisations are achieving results. Australian contributions to the World Bank, for example, are helping developing countries accelerate efforts to achieve their MDGs. From 2012 to 2015, the World Bank will help recruit or train more than one million teachers for schools, immunise up to 116 million children and provide more than 40 million people with access to improved water sources.

Australia's new pledge of $270 million over four years (2011‑15) to the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) reflects its standing as the primary multilateral organisation supporting education in the world's poorest countries. Australia's pledge was the second largest pledge for that period and ranks Australia as the fourth largest out of 19 donors to the GPE overall. The pledge will increase Australia's influence in the governance and future direction of the GPE, consistent with education's standing as the flagship of the Australian aid program. Australia's contribution will enable up to 2.16 million more children to go to school, build up to 200 new classrooms, provide up to one year of training for nearly 3,000 teachers, and support the distribution of up to 1.3 million textbooks.

The findings of the Australian Multilateral Assessment (AMA) (see Box 2) provide the basis on which Australia will strengthen its policy and funding engagement with multilateral organisations over the next four years and ensure it is getting value for money and results from this growing engagement. The AMA found that most of Australia's multilateral partners are effective and relevant to Australia's aid objectives. Of the 42 multilateral organisations assessed in the AMA, 37 were rated satisfactory or above, with five weak on one or more criteria.

The AMA findings have helped guide decisions on core funding to Australia's multilateral partners in the 2012‑13 Budget. Priority for additional funding was given to organisations ranked 'high degree of confidence' or 'reasonably high degree of confidence' in the AMA. However, other considerations that influenced future funding for our multilateral partners included:

  • existing funding levels and the balance of Australia's effort compared to other donors;
  • the organisation's need for additional funding and capacity to effectively absorb it; and
  • the prospects of reform efforts leading to improved effectiveness.

Core funding for 10 key United Nations partners will increase in this year's Budget. AusAID will introduce an ongoing rating system to help inform core funding decisions in future budgets. This will be done through a new annual scorecard that will track the results of Australia's multilateral funding and the effectiveness of multilateral partnerships more systematically to ensure value for money. We will also introduce a formal performance management system to address the performance of those multilateral organisations with identified weaknesses, with future core funding contingent on improvements in performance.

Australia's enhanced engagement with multilateral organisations builds on a firm base. Australia has strong existing relationships with many multilateral organisations. Australia has signed partnership frameworks with 12 multilateral organisations that outline shared goals for the efficient use of Australian funds and track the results of our funding. Australia has signed partnership frameworks with:

  • The World Bank;
  • The Asian Development Bank;
  • United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA);
  • United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA);
  • Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS);
  • World Food Programme (WFP);
  • United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR);
  • World Health Organization (WHO);
  • International Labour Organization (ILO);
  • United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF);
  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); and
  • United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women).

Box 2: Australian Multilateral Assessment (AMA)

The AMA assessed 42 key multilateral partners. The assessment involved research and engagement with stakeholders to gather comprehensive evidence on effectiveness of multilateral organisations and their relevance to Australia's interests. It rated organisations according to seven components, grouped into two categories ('Results and relevance' and 'Organisational behaviour'). Organisations were then assigned to one of four tiers according to the degree of confidence that increases in core funding will deliver tangible development benefits in line with Australia's development objectives and that the investment will represent good value for money.

The assessment found that most of Australia's largest multilateral partners are effective. In the case of 13 organisations, Australia can have a high degree of confidence that increases in funding for core operations represent good value for money. Organisations in the highest category include the Asian Development Bank, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation, Global Partnership for Education, International Committee of the Red Cross, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Bank, and World Food Programme.

In the case of a further 16 organisations, the AMA found that the Australian Government could have a reasonably high degree of confidence that increases in core funding represent value for money. Organisations in this category included the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, United Nations Children's Fund, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations Population Fund, and the World Health Organization.

The AMA recommended that decisions on whether to increase core funding for a further eight organisations should be made on a case-by-case basis. Most of the organisations in this category are in the midst of major reform efforts, and further analysis on the prospects of reform leading to improvements in effectiveness may be needed. Organisations in this category include: the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and the International Labour Organization.

The AMA found five organisations to be weak in at least one area: the Commonwealth Secretariat Development Programmes, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, and the United Nations Mine Action Service. The AMA recommended further analysis and discussion before Australia provides any additional core funding.

Multilateral performance will be tracked on an ongoing basis through a new multilateral scorecard that assesses the effectiveness and relevance of each multilateral partner. A new Multilateral Engagement Strategy will take forward the findings of the AMA. This will include engagement strategies for Australia's largest multilateral partners as well as details about the new multilateral scorecard and formal performance management system.

Global programs

Multilateral Engagement

2012-13 Estimate — Contribution to multilateral replenishments: $313.2 million
2012-13 Estimate — United National and other global organisations: $368.1 million

Focus Expected returns
Contribution to multilateral replenishments158 $313.2m
Australia's expected 2012‑13 cash contributions to multilateral organisations, in accordance with past multi-year commitments.
Asian Development Bank (through the Asian Development Fund, ADF) $83.1m

The Asian Development Bank's concessional lending arm, the ADF, is guided by the vision of an Asia-Pacific region free of poverty. It promotes inclusive and environmentally sustainable economic growth and regional cooperation. There are 28 countries eligible to receive assistance from the ADF. Our payments in 2012‑13 reflect commitments made under previous replenishments, plus the first payment for the tenth replenishment, which concluded in May 2012 and will be paid over 2013 to 2016.

AMA rating: High degree of confidence

From 2013 to 2016, our contributions will help:

  • build or upgrade 12,000 classrooms and train 211,000 teachers, benefiting 2.5 million students;
  • install or upgrade 2,300 kilometres of transmission lines connecting 346,000 new households to electricity;
  • build or upgrade 15,000 kilometres of roads, and 723 kilometres of railways;
  • and install or upgrade 8,000 kilometres of water pipes providing 562,000 new households with water supply and 444,000 with sanitation.
World Bank (through the International Development Association, IDA) $189.5m

The World Bank's IDA assists the world's 81 poorest countries. IDA reduces poverty by providing interest-free loans and grants for programs that boost economic growth, reduce inequalities and improve people's living conditions. Our payments in 2012‑13 reflect commitments made under previous replenishments.

AMA rating: High degree of confidence

From 2012 to 2015, our contributions to IDA replenishments will help:

  • recruit and train 1.0 to 1.2 million teachers;
  • immunise over 99 million children;
  • construct or rehabilitate 37,000 to 44,000 kilometres of road; and
  • provide 36 to 42 million people with access to improved water sources.
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative $17.4m

The HIPC Initiative provides debt relief to the world's poorest and most indebted countries, to help free up resources to meet their poverty reduction goals.

Not included in AMA

Multilateral debt relief helps indebted poor countries free up resources for social spending, such as health, education, and other social services. Poverty reducing expenditure is projected to increase by approximately two percentage points of GDP from 2011 to 2015 due to the HIPC Initiative.

Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI)

The MDRI provides 100 per cent relief on eligible debt from the International Monetary Fund, World Bank's IDA and African Development Fund to a group of low-income countries, to help them advance toward the MDGs.

Not included in AMA

From 2006 to 2046 contributions to MDRI are projected to cancel approximately US$35.5 billion of credit reflows from eligible low income countries. This will enable eligible countries to reallocate income to national poverty reduction strategies.

Global Environment Facility (GEF) $20.1m

The GEF helps developing countries to tackle climate change, biodiversity loss, ozone depletion, contamination by persistent organic pollutants and degradation of land and trans-boundary water systems. Our contribution is part of a larger, global GEF funding pool of US$4.34 billion over four years.

AMA rating: High degree of confidence

Our contribution to GEF will help ensure:

  • global ecosystems and natural resources are conserved and used sustainably;
  • climate change risks are reduced through lower emissions and countries are assisted to adapt to climate change; and
  • chemicals are managed throughout their lifespan, minimising their impact on human health and environments.
Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol (MFMP) $3.2m

MFMP helps more than 140 developing countries with annual per capita consumption and production of ozone depleting substances less than 0.3 kilograms to comply with the control measures of the Protocol to phase out the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in line with their commitments under the Montreal Protocol. Our contribution is part of a larger, global MFMP funding pool of US$450 million over three years.

AMA rating: High degree of confidence

Our contribution to MFMP will contribute to helping reverse the production and use of ozone depleting substances in developing countries.

United Nations Development Agencies $124.7m

Our core funding to United Nations development agencies supports United Nations efforts to progress the Millennium Development Goals.

UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) $34.1m

UNICEF's work links to a number of strategic goals of Australia's aid program. It is dedicated to working exclusively for children and their rights. UNICEF focuses on five areas — young child survival and development, basic education and gender equality, HIV and children, child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse, and policy advocacy and partnerships for children's rights.

AMA rating: Reasonably high degree of confidence

Our contribution to UNICEF to 2015 will help developing countries achieve their MDGs by improving maternal and child health services, strengthening access to quality basic education for the world's poorest children, and assisting vulnerable people to prepare for and respond to disasters and humanitarian crises.

World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) $47.0m
These organisations save lives by supporting and delivering services that reduce maternal and child deaths, reduce cases of, and deaths from, communicable and non-communicable diseases, and by increasing equitable access to quality health care.

AMA rating: All rated reasonably high degree of confidence

Australia's contribution to UN Health Agencies will help poor countries to:

  • support immunisation programs for children;
  • prevent and treat diseases such as tuberculosis, HIV and malaria;
  • increase access to family planning services;
  • respond to public health threats and emergencies in our region and around the world; and
  • improve the quality of the health workforce and health infrastructure.
UN Women $8.0m
UN Women's mandate is to accelerate global promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women. UN Women's priorities include strengthening women's leadership and participation, ending violence against women; and enhancing women's economic empowerment.

UN Women's focus on gender equality aligns with the importance of gender as a critical cross-cutting priority, as outlined in the Government's new aid policy, An Effective Aid Program for Australia: Making a real difference — Delivering real results.

UN Women was not assessed in the AMA as it only came into existence in January 2011.

Our contribution to UN Women will help developing countries achieve their MDGs through:

  • better maternal health, helping more girls to attend school, and empowering women to participate in the economy, leadership and education; and
  • increasing UN Women's ability to lead and coordinate efforts to achieve gender equality in the UN system.
UN Development Programme (UNDP) $23.3m

UNDP is the United Nations' leading development agency with responsibility for coordinating national and global efforts to achieve the MDGs and UN inter-agency cooperation. It provides direct assistance on the ground in 177 countries and its work focuses on poverty reduction and achieving the MDGs, democratic governance, crisis prevention and recovery, environment and energy, HIV/AIDS, women's empowerment, and capacity development.

AMA rating: Reasonably high degree of confidence

Our contribution to UNDP will help developing countries achieve their MDGs through:

  • strengthening the focus on poverty reduction and increasing the effectiveness, relevance and efficiency of United Nations development programs;
  • supporting an increased focus on local governance activities;
  • strengthening emphasis on economic recovery from crisis and disaster; and
  • enhancing support for the development and implementation of low emission, climate-resilient development strategies.
Other UN Development Agencies $12.3m

Australia also supports other United Nations agencies, including the International Atomic Energy Agency, International Labour Organization, United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Our support for the United Nations' humanitarian agencies is described in Section 3.2 Humanitarian, Emergencies and Refugee Programs'.

AMA rating for UNEP and UNODC: Decisions on whether to increase core funding should be made case-by-case

Australia will contribute to development outcomes in accordance with each UN agency's mandate and strategic framework.

Commonwealth $15.3

The Commonwealth is a group of 54 countries working together to advance shared goals in democracy and development. Australia's support to Commonwealth development programs provides technical assistance in various sectors through the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation. It also supports programs focused on civil society, youth engagement, and open and distance learning in Commonwealth developing countries.

AMA finding: Further analysis is required before decisions are made on core funding levels

Our contribution to Commonwealth development programs will:

  • provide assistance to Commonwealth developing countries in sectors including economic development, rule of law and public sector development; and
  • deliver activities in support of democracy and development as announced at the 2011 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, including re-joining the Commonwealth of Learning.
Contributions to Global Environment Programs $81.6m

Australia supports various global climate change adaptation programs such as the Least Developed Countries Fund and the Adaptation Fund, and other global climate change mitigation programs such as the Scaling-Up Renewable Energy in Developing Countries Program, the Partnership for Market Readiness and the Global Green Growth Institute. Australia also supports global forest carbon and environment programs such as the Global Crop Diversity Trust.

AMA rating for Global Crop Diversity Trust: High degree of confidence

AMA rating for Climate Investment Funds (CIF): High degree of confidence

Our contribution to global climate change and environment programs will help:

  • developing countries improve their capacity and resilience to manage the effects of climate change;
  • reduce emissions by planning for low carbon growth and access to carbon markets; and
  • build environmental management capacity, which will improve forests, land and agriculture management.
Contributions to Global Health Programs $110.5m

We fund innovative international funding mechanisms which help to progress the health Millennium Development Goals.

Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) $20.0m

GAVI is a global health public-private partnership committed to saving children's lives and protecting people's health by increasing access to immunisation in low income countries. Australia has committed $200 million to the GAVI Alliance for 2011-13.

AMA rating: High degree of confidence

Between 2011 and 2015 Australia's contribution to GAVI is expected to support the full immunisation of 7.7 million children in developing countries.

International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIm) $5.0m

IFFIm generates additional resources for immunisation by selling bonds on capital markets underwritten by long-term donor commitments. These resources are used by GAVI to increase access to immunisation in developing countries. Australia has committed to provide $250 million to IFFIm over 20 years (2010-30).

Not included in AMA

Our contribution to IFFIm will enable developing countries to rapidly increase vaccine coverage and lower disease prevalence. Resources generated by IFFIm are used by GAVI to help low-income countries strengthen their health systems by training health workers, buying essential drugs, and providing maternal and child health care services.

Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) $70.0m

The Global Fund was established as a public-private partnership to increase resources to fight three of the world's most devastating diseases—tuberculosis, malaria and HIV/AIDS. It has become the largest multilateral funder in global health. Australia has committed $210 million to the Global Fund for 2011‑13.

AMA rating: Decisions on whether to increase core funding should be made case-by-case

By 2015, our contribution will help:

  • 70,000 people receive HIV treatment;
  • 60,000 people receive tuberculosis treatment; and
  • distribution of over 1,700,000 bed nets annually to prevent malaria.
Contributions to Global Education Programs $30.0m

The Global Partnership for Education, or GPE, (formerly the Fast Track Initiative) is a partnership of donors and developing countries dedicated to ensuring improved education outcomes in the world's poorest countries. The work of GPE contributes directly to the Government's strategic goal of promoting opportunities for all. GPE maintains a strong focus on gender parity in education. Almost half of GPE funding is allocated to fragile states. Australia has committed $270 million to GPE for 2011‑15.

AMA rating: High degree of confidence

Between 2011‑2015, our contribution to GPE will help enable:

  • 20 million additional enrolments in school;
  • a 40 per cent reduction in out-of-school children of primary school age;
  • 40 million new textbooks in classrooms; and
  • 500,000 new trained teachers.

 

New Initiative: Expanding Australia's Development Partnerships with the United Nations

The Government will provide an additional $154.3 million over four years to expand our engagement with effective United Nations organisations, including: the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), UN Women, World Health Organization, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).

These agencies are key partners in delivering our aid program. The Australian Multilateral Assessment, which examined the effectiveness of 42 of Australia's multilateral partners, confirmed the relevance and effectiveness of the above organisations. By working through them, Australia's aid program will:

  • accelerate achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by improving access to health services — particularly maternal and child health and HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention — and education for the poorest of the poor;
  • improve and protect the health, education and safety of poor children, particularly those affected by conflicts and natural disasters;
  • promote gender equality, for example by supporting 25 countries to enact gender responsive recruitment and retention policies in public sector institutions; and
  • combat corruption and support democratic processes in 128 countries.

Increasing our funding to these organisations will enhance Australia's profile as an aid donor, which will in turn provide greater opportunities for us to pursue issues of greatest relevance and interest to Australia. In particular, we will direct our efforts towards achieving a stronger United Nations focus on Asia, the Pacific and fragile states.

Box 3: Australia's contribution to the tenth replenishment of the Asian Development Fund

In March 2011, the Government pledged up to $629.3 million for the tenth replenishment (2013‑2016) of the Asian Development Fund — the concessional arm of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) that assists low‑income countries in Asia and the Pacific.

It is expected that Australia's contribution to the replenishment of the Fund will:

  • benefit more than one million students through school improvement programs or direct support;
  • assist more than 37,000 households connect to electricity and support approximately 450,000 households connect to a fresh water supply; and
  • benefit 7 million people through road maintenance, construction and upgrades.

The ADB is one of Australia's principal multilateral partners in Asia and the Pacific. Our recent pledge will see Australia become the second largest contributor to the Fund and highlights Australia's strong commitment to addressing poverty in the Asia-Pacific through regional institutions.


3.2. Humanitarian, Emergencies and Refugees

Overview

Australia helps save lives through effective humanitarian and disaster response, supported by strong partnerships. As confirmed by the Australian Multilateral Assessment (AMA), Australia is engaging with, and providing core funding to, multilateral organisations that have demonstrated effectiveness and performance (see Box 2, Section 3.1).

Predictable multi-year funding for humanitarian action provides partners with the certainty to plan and procure, including for longer term strategic actions such as building the resilience of communities to cyclical drought and famine challenges. Predictable funding is therefore a key objective of Australia's assistance and our four‑year partnership agreement with the World Food Programme has been described by the United Nations as 'donor best practice'. In 2012‑13, we will continue to support action to strengthen capacity to prepare for and respond to global crises, and we will contribute towards improving coordination and efficiency in the international humanitarian system.

Australia will work with global advocacy and coordination agencies such as the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. We will continue to respond to emergency humanitarian appeals from the World Food Programme, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the International Committee of the Red Cross.

The United Nations has a vital role in both delivering humanitarian assistance and peace building. We will continue to support the work of United Nations humanitarian and peace building agencies to improve effectiveness and coordination of the United Nations' responses following natural disasters and in fragile and conflict-affected states. In 2012‑13, Australia will continue its support for the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission and funding to the United Nations Peacebuilding Fund. Doing so helps Australia to be engaged in peacebuilding processes in geographic areas where we may not have strong, or any, representation. Australia is also a supporter of the World Bank's efforts to improve aid effectiveness in fragile and conflict affected settings. More than 50 per cent of Australia's aid is delivered in fragile states. In 2012‑13, AusAID will continue to assist the World Bank's State and Peacebuilding Fund, which supports state and local governance and peacebuilding efforts in fragile states.

Australia will strengthen our responses to humanitarian crises by supporting effective non-government partners who have local capabilities and specialist knowledge. We will continue to fund the Australian Red Cross, RedR Australia and Humanitarian Partnership Agreements with six Australian non-government organisations that have demonstrated capacity to respond effectively to large-scale humanitarian crises (World Vision Australia, Oxfam Australia, CARE Australia, Caritas Australia, Plan International Australia and Save The Children Australia). Our multi-year support helps these organisations build capacity and respond rapidly to disaster and conflict wherever they occur in the world. In the Horn of Africa, for example, aid program support is enabling Australian NGOs to deliver assistance to a target group of more than 200,000 people affected by famine in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya.

Global programs

Humanitarian, Emergency and Refugee Programs

2012-13 Estimate $405.5 million

Focus Expected returns
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) $22.0m

ICRC is one of the world's largest and most respected humanitarian agencies mandated in international law to protect and assist civilians affected by armed conflict. The ICRC operates in around 80 countries. Australia is a major contributor of core funding to ICRC.

AMA rating: High degree of confidence

Australian support will protect civilians affected by armed conflict and other situations of violence. In Somalia for example, Australian support helped feed more than 1 million people affected by drought and conflict. Our support will also promote and strengthen international humanitarian law and universal humanitarian principles through training and advocacy with governments, military and police.

United Nations Humanitarian Agencies $105.0m
We will continue to support the work of key United Nations (UN) humanitarian agencies, leading to improved effectiveness and coordination of the UN response to humanitarian crises around the globe.
World Food Programme (WFP) $46.0m

WFP is the lead United Nations agency for humanitarian food assistance in emergencies. Australia is providing $180 million over four years (2009-2013) to support emergency and recovery operations as well as school feeding. WFP was the top ranked organisation in the AMA.

AMA rating: High degree of confidence

Australia will be assisting WFP to feed more than 100 million people in more than 70 countries during humanitarian emergencies and post-emergency recovery operations. We will provide ongoing support for the re-establishment of livelihoods and food security in communities after emergencies. We will also contribute to improved nutrition and increased access to education for children through WFP school feeding programs.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) $19.0m

The UNHCR is the mandated lead agency assisting refugees and internally displaced people. Australia is one of the major contributors to UNHCR core funding.

AMA rating: High degree of confidence

Australian funds help UNHCR provide protection from violence and exploitation, and shelter and sanitation to some 34 million refugees and displaced persons in humanitarian crises. In the Horn of Africa for example, Australia's $15 million contribution to UNHCR assisted the organisation to register and respond to the needs of 463,000 refugees at Dadaab camps in Kenya, and 144,000 people at Dollo Ado refugee camps in Ethiopia, up to 80 per cent of whom are children.

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) and United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund (UNCERF) $25.0m

UNCERF is used to provide rapid response funding and support under-funded emergencies. UNCERF is managed by the head of UNOCHA, which is responsible for coordination of humanitarian organisations, to facilitate coherent responses to emergencies. UNOCHA relies on funds like UNCERF to improve the level of predictability, flexibility and timeliness in international humanitarian crisis response.

AMA rating: Reasonably high degree of confidence

UNOCHA enables: Effective advocacy and leadership to ensure a timely and coordinated humanitarian response to save lives; strengthened engagement with national authorities on disaster management; and strengthened disaster preparedness and coordination across the Asia‑Pacific region.

Australian funding for UNCERF enables a more rapid and comprehensive humanitarian response by UN agencies to sudden on-set and protracted or 'neglected' emergencies. UNCERF provided US$35 million to combat drought in the Horn of Africa in early 2011 and another US$82 million since June 2011.

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) $15.0m

Funding to the UNRWA to provide basic services (including education and health) for some 4.8 million registered Palestine refugees in Jordan, Syria and the Palestinian Territories, and to respond to humanitarian and emergency needs.

AMA rating: Reasonably high degree of confidence

Australian funding contributes to the provision of basic social services and humanitarian relief to Palestinian refugees.

United Nations Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) and Peacebuilding Fund (PBF)

PBC is an intergovernmental advisory body to support peacebuilding in countries emerging from conflict. It advises the UN General Assembly and the UN Security Council. Australia supports the work of PBC and provides support to the PBF to respond to imminent threats to peace, build or strengthen national capacity to promote peace, stimulate economic revitalisation, and re-establish basic services. Australia has provided $11 million to PBF since 2006.

AMA rating: Reasonably high degree of confidence

PBF funding fills immediate peacebuilding gaps in countries in crisis. Programs funded by PBF contribute directly to helping Australia meet its global objectives on peacebuilding. PBF is currently active in 22 countries. For example, in Sri Lanka, PBF has supported returnees who are unable to re-establish their livelihoods due to mine or unexploded ordnance contamination of surrounding agricultural and grazing land.

 

New Initiative: Strengthening preparedness and response to humanitarian crises

In 2010, 385 natural disasters killed more than 297,000 people worldwide and affected more than 208 million people. In an ever-present challenge for Australia, the Asia-Pacific region has accounted for 85 per cent of global deaths from natural disasters over the last three decades. Developing countries are worst-affected.

The Government will invest an additional $435.6 million over four years to expand Australia's capacity to respond to crises overseas, and to reduce the vulnerability of countries to natural disasters and the destabilising effects of conflict and state fragility.

Australia will build on our existing reputation as being dependable and generous when people need our help. We will be even better prepared to respond to crises, being able to assist within 48 hours of a request. We will lead or co-lead an anticipated 40 responses to requests for assistance from countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Over the four years, we will provide life-saving assistance to a projected 30 million people in crisis situations, and will prevent further deaths through disaster risk reduction, mine action, protection and conflict prevention activities.

We will work with governments and regional organisations to help countries prevent crises, and to be better prepared to cope when they eventuate. We will build our relationships with Australian and international non‑government organisations and global humanitarian organisations, and will draw on federal, state, commercial and non-government expertise and assets to provide the best‑possible assistance when needed.

Through all of this, we will reinforce Australia's status as a leading humanitarian donor, giving us a stronger policy voice and more influence on issues and countries of most importance to us.

Box 4: Australian Civilian Corps (ACC)

The Australian Civilian Corps (ACC) is a mechanism to deploy Australian civilian specialists to countries experiencing or emerging from natural disaster or conflict. ACC deployments support stabilisation, recovery and development planning, acting as a bridge between humanitarian and emergency response measures and long-term development programs.

The ACC initiative became operational in 2011. Members of the ACC register are highly skilled and experienced civilians who are able to be deployed to assist countries restore essential services, rebuild government institutions and re-establish economic and social stability. There are more than 260 civilian specialists on the register recruited and trained for deployment. In 2012‑13, AusAID will continue to build the ACC register towards a target of 500 ACC specialists so it can draw on the expertise of Australians to help overseas communities suffering from disasters and conflict.

In 2011‑12, AusAID deployed 31 ACC civilian specialists to support stabilisation and recovery efforts. This included a team of 21 specialists deployed to Papua New Guinea in the lead up to the 2012 elections, and small teams or individuals in Afghanistan, Sierra Leone, Haiti and South Sudan working in peace building, donor coordination and stabilisation adviser roles. AusAID also contributed a civilian specialist from the ACC to support a United Kingdom-led mission to Libya to assess what is needed to promote stability in that country.

AusAID has established a post-disaster recovery capability from the ACC register consisting of 23 ACC specialists who have received advanced training and are on stand-by to deploy at short notice. The post‑disaster recovery capability will augment Australia's humanitarian response and speed early recovery in the event of natural disaster in the Asia-Pacific region or beyond. Through the ACC, AusAID is establishing partnerships with our international counterparts (including the United Kingdom Stabilisation Unit and the United States' Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations), multilateral organisations and other donors through joint deployments and training exercises. Working with effective partners allows Australia to benefit from these organisations' specialist expertise and extend Australia's reach and impact, particularly in geographic areas where we have a limited presence on the ground.

Country Activities in 2012‑13
Afghanistan
  • Teams of advisers in Uruzgan Province will assist in coordinating the Australian-led Provincial Reconstruction Team's district level stabilisation and development activities.
  • These advisers will mentor and support district Afghan officials to plan and deliver essential services to the community and work alongside other whole‑of‑government and international partners to identify and deliver development and stabilisation activities including small scale community development and public infrastructure projects.
Papua New Guinea
  • ACC civilian specialists will provide surge capacity to support the Papua New Guinea Electoral Commission's Operations Branch during the critical period leading up to and during the 2012 General Elections.
Sierra Leone
  • An ACC peacebuilding adviser has been deployed to Sierra Leone to support the recovery and development needs of Sierra Leone, Liberia and the West Africa region.

3.3. Involving the Australian Community

Overview

Harnessing the talent available in the Australian community is an integral part of the Australian Government's approach to an effective aid program. For instance, the Government draws on the skills and experiences of thousands of individual Australians as volunteers to work with a range of people and organisations in developing countries. The Government also partners with and funds Australian non‑government organisations (NGOs) to work with communities and people in over 50 countries across Asia, the Pacific, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America.

Australian NGOs bring particular strengths to Australia's aid program. Some have been working in international aid and development for over 60 years. They mobilise public support and voluntary contributions for aid, and they often work in areas where government-to-government aid is not possible. Many also have expertise in working in emergency situations where quick and flexible responses are essential.

In recognition of these strengths, the Australian Government provides funding to Australian NGOs for both long-term development activities and rapid response to humanitarian emergencies and disasters. The Government has in place formal Humanitarian Partnership Agreements with six Australian NGOs (World Vision Australia, Oxfam Australia, CARE Australia, Caritas Australia, Plan International Australia and Save The Children Australia), as well as a multi-year partnership with the Australian Red Cross. These allow the Australian Government to respond to emergencies by quickly committing funds to organisations with proven capabilities.

In 2011‑12, the Australian Government's Dollar for Dollar initiative matched funds raised by the public through Australian NGOs to alleviate the food crisis in the Horn of Africa. With Australian NGOs raising $13.7 million, the campaign raised over $27 million, for the provision of clean water, shelter, sanitation and vaccinations, providing life-saving assistance to hundreds of thousands of famine victims, including women and children.

The Australian Government also provides funding to Australian NGOs through the AusAID-NGO Cooperation Program (ANCP). As outlined in the Government's new aid policy, An Effective Aid Program for Australia: Making a real difference — Delivering real results, the Australian Government will double funding to the ANCP, increasing from $69 million in 2010‑11 to at least $150 million by 2014-15. In 2011‑12, $98 million in grants was provided under ANCP to 43 Australian NGOs working in almost 50 countries across Asia, the Pacific, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. Of this, $63 million was provided to eight of Australia's largest NGOs — World Vision Australia, Oxfam Australia, CARE Australia, Caritas Australia, Plan International Australia, Child Fund Australia, TEAR Australia and CBM Australia — who have entered into high-level strategic partnerships with the Australian Government, working jointly to improve the lives of millions of people in developing countries. In 2012‑13, ANCP funding will increase to $110 million.

The Government also utilises the skills and experience of individual members of the Australian community through the Australian Volunteers for International Development program (AVID). AVID was launched in May 2011, drawing together a range of Australian Government overseas volunteering initiatives under a single banner. AVID includes Australian Youth Ambassadors for Development, which is a highly competitive youth stream within the broader program. AVID offers Australians the opportunity to live and work in developing countries to share their skills and knowledge to help reduce poverty, support sustainable development and promote Australia as a good global citizen. In 2012‑13, the Australian Government will fund more than 1,000 new volunteer assignments in over 40 developing countries, supporting a total of 1,850 Australians on new and continuing volunteer assignments, ranging in length from a few weeks to three years. AusAID works in partnership with Austraining International, Australian Volunteers International and the Australian Red Cross, to select, prepare, deploy and manage volunteers.

The Government is also seeking to increase the aid program's engagement with the Australian business community, including making better use of private sector expertise in the early stages of policy development and program design in particular regions and countries.

Box 5: AusAID Civil Society Engagement Framework

The Australian Government not only recognises the important role the Australian community plays in ensuring an effective aid program, but also acknowledges the important role of community and community organisations in other countries, regions and local areas. As stated in An Effective Aid Program for Australia: Making a real difference — Delivering real results:

    Delivering aid through civil society organisations enables us to benefit from these organisations' grass roots networks, niche areas of specialisation, and presence on the ground. These organisations are connected with local communities, and are able to engage on policy issues and deliver assistance directly to those people who need it most.

AusAID is developing a Civil Society Engagement Framework which will take action to strengthen the Government's engagement with civil society organisations, both in Australia and overseas.  The Civil Society Engagement Framework is aimed at AusAID and civil society organisations, including Australian NGOs, working together more effectively to achieve greater development impact.

Global Programs

Involving the Australian Community

2012-13 Estimate $193.5 million

Focus Expected returns
Engaging with Australian Non-Government Organisations (NGOs)
AusAID works with Australian NGOs in a variety of ways, including
AusAID NGO Cooperation Program (ANCP) $110m

ANCP provides funding for 43 accredited Australian NGOs to carry out more than 500 activities in over 50 countries, aligned with the Government's strategic goals for the aid program.

Reduction in the number of people living in poverty, particularly in the poorest and most marginalised communities in developing countries.

NGO policy and effectiveness $1.1m

AusAID commissions due diligence checks of Australian aid and development NGOs which are seeking tax deductibility status through the Overseas Aid Gift Deduction Scheme, and which are seeking accreditation to access ANCP funding. NGO effectiveness is also ensured through the application of a Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning Framework.

Improved effectiveness, transparency and accountability of Australian NGOs' work in developing countries; reduced risks, particularly in terms of fraud and mismanagement of aid funds.

Partnership with the Australian Council for International Development (ACFID) $0.9m

The Government's formal partnership with ACFID provides for regular and structured dialogue on aid policy and strategy. The experiences and lessons learned in aid and development across the NGO sector are considered in the Government's deliberations on policy and strategy issues. ACFID also provides training and development on compliance with the ACFID Code of Conduct for its 75+ NGO members.

Improved aid effectiveness and results through the development of sound policy approaches to international development problems. Increased professionalism of Australian NGOs, resulting in increased aid effectiveness and reduced risks.

Australian volunteers $63.0m

The Australian Volunteers for International Development program, which includes Australian Youth Ambassadors for Development, allows for individual Australians to contribute to the aid program through undertaking assignments in a range of developing countries. Volunteers help build capacity in host organisations which are focused on meeting development needs across sectors such as health, education, rural development, and law and justice.

Increased capacity of a range of organisations in developing countries to contribute to development outcomes through the recruitment and placement of 1,000 Australian volunteers in more than 40 countries. During 2012‑13, there will be approximately 1,850 Australians supported on volunteer assignments, including new and ongoing volunteers.

Engaging with Australian business

The Government will increase its engagement with Australian business, including through regular meetings of an AusAID-chaired Business Engagement Steering Committee, and by hosting a consultative forum with business.

Greater input from business in relevant AusAID policy development and program design. Development of a Private Sector Development Strategy informed by Australian business experience and expertise.

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