Statement 8 (continued)
Fiscal risks comprise general developments or specific events that may affect the fiscal outlook. Some developments or events raise the possibility of a fiscal impact. In other cases, the likelihood of a fiscal impact may be reasonably certain, but will not be included in the forward estimates because the timing or magnitude is not known.
Major taxes such as company and individuals' income taxes fluctuate significantly with economic activity. Capital gains tax is particularly volatile and is affected by both the level of gains in asset markets and the timing of when those gains are realised. Similarly, superannuation fund income tax is affected by investment market returns. Consistent with Government policy, the Budget estimates include the impact of the repeal of the carbon tax and the minerals resource rent tax from 1 July 2014. The timing of the passage of the repeal bills beyond 1 July 2014 could cause variations in the revenue forecast for these taxes.
The estimates and projections of revenue are subject to a number of general risks that can affect taxation collections. These general risks include failure of the tax system to keep pace with changes in the business environment, tax avoidance, court decisions, Australian Taxation Office rulings and the outcome of compliance programmes. These pressures may result in a shift in the composition of taxation collected from the various tax bases and/or a change in the size of the tax base.
There are also a number of fiscal risks that may affect the expense estimates and projections. In particular, demand driven programmes, which form the bulk of the Government's expenses, can fluctuate significantly with economic and social conditions. If changes to these conditions are not anticipated this can have major effects on expense levels. For example, an expected increase in the number of persons unemployed in the population could lead to additional welfare related expenses. Fiscal risks also include emergency foreign aid and potential natural disasters. Such occurrences have in the past resulted in unexpected increases in expenses and may do so again. Specific fiscal risks to the budget and forward estimates are detailed below.
The estimates for the Department of Defence include the cost of major overseas operations of the Australian Defence Force in Afghanistan and the Middle East in 2014‑15. Funding is considered on a year‑by‑year basis and the forward estimates do not provide for extensions of currently approved operations beyond 2014‑15. This is consistent with past practice. In the case of Operation Slipper and its supporting operation, Operation Accordion, funding has been agreed to 31 December 2014. The Department of Defence will likely have additional funding requirements for Afghanistan operations after 2014.
Effective 19 July 2013, Australia has made up to A$1 billion available to the Government of Indonesia in the form of a standby loan facility, to be drawn down should Indonesia be unable to raise sufficient funds at reasonable interest rates on global capital markets due to the impact of financial market volatility. Contributions to the standby loan facility will also be provided by the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and the Government of Japan. This facility is available to Indonesia up to 30 June 2014. A drawdown from the facility will be dependent on a request from the Indonesian Government and subject to certain criteria being met. Any funds provided will be repaid in full with interest.
The Australian Government has supported the Gold Coast's bid to host the 2018 Commonwealth Games through the provision of commitments in areas such as immigration, customs, work permits, taxation, security, protection of commercial rights, and communications and information technology. Not all costs associated with delivery of the commitments are available at this time.
The introduction of a 1500 gigalitre (GL) cap on Australian Government water buybacks comes with a potential, but currently unquantifiable, fiscal risk for the Government. If there is a substantial shortfall in sustainable diversion limit (SDL) adjustments from supply measures, then the cap on water buybacks will be reached and other potentially more expensive means of water recovery will need to be used to meet SDLs. It will not be possible to identify whether this risk will be realised, and what the financial implications are, until the SDL adjustment mechanism operates in 2016.
There are a significant number of measures which impact on the Budget aggregates that remain subject to the legislative process. If legislation is not passed by Parliament as proposed, this may affect the estimates and projections of the Budget.